Antibodies are fundamental and essential components of the body. They help in fighting unwanted microorganisms in the body. Antibodies are produced mainly by the immune system, responsible for protecting the body and fighting any bacteria or germs in the body. Antibodies are also essential for the research and production of vaccines.
With a high need for antibodies, scientists developed a simple process to produce custom antibodies used for research and the production of vaccines. Using advanced technology, scientists can now produce large-scale custom antibodies similar to natural ones.
Read this article to learn a few facts about custom antibodies.
1. Custom Antibodies Production
Custom antibodies are produced using a systematic procedure. It’s good to note that there are two types of antibodies; monoclonal and polyclonal. Each type of antibody has applied a different method of production. For example, polyclonal antibodies are produced by collecting them from the serum, while monoclonal antibodies are produced by combining the myeloma cells with the spleen cells from the immunized animal. Regardless of the type of antibody being produced, there are procedures to be followed. When producing polyclonal antibodies,
2. Components of Custom Antibodies
Custom antibodies consist of four polypeptides, Y-shaped molecules, light chains, and heavy chains. The polypeptides in antibodies help give them a protein nature since they contain many amino acids. Polypeptides are produced separately during the antibody production process. Most scientists apply the solid-phase method, which is simple and quality peptides.
The light chains are small immunoglobulin subunits of the polypeptides. The two light chains ensure antibodies’ effective expression and secretion. They also help bind antigens by increasing the variability of antibodies.
The heavy chains are found on the tail of the Y-shape antibodies. They are the largest subunits of polypeptides in custom antibodies. The immunoglobulin heavy chains categorize antibodies in terms of classes and isotypes. There are five major classifications of the heavy chains in antibodies; IgM, IgA, IgG, IgD, and IgE. Heavy chains help in carrying the essential amino acids.
you follow the following steps;
- peptide design and synthesis
- animal immunization
- serum collection
- titer analysis
- final antibody purification
on the other side, when making Custom Antibody, you start by preparing antigens, then hybridoma development immunizations, hybridoma development fusions, subcloning, and monoclonal antibodies purification
3. Uses of Custom Antibodies
Custom antibodies are needed for various reasons. They are used for scientific and biological research and the production of crucial vaccines. They are also used in detecting any novel biomarker or target and improving the performance of commercial products. Antibodies are also used for making various products and supplies. For example, they are used to create multiple medicinal products. They have been used in fighting against diseases such as cancer, autoimmune, and infectious diseases. Antibodies such as monoclonal antibodies are used for therapeutic purposes. Polyclonal antibodies are used to fight against Citrus Tristeza Virus.
4. Research Applications for Antibodies
Custom antibodies are used for experiments in various fields, such as immunology and neuroscience. They can be applied in the quantitative and qualitative measurement of protein expression, especially in cell lysates, tissue samples, and whole cells. Some of the significant applications of custom antibodies in research include; western blot, ELISA test, Immunoprecipitation, flow cytometry, Vivo, and cells and tissue labeling.
Western blots are experiments to test the presence of proteins from a sample containing several components. Similarly, ELISA tests are carried out to assess the presence of a single protein in a heterogeneous mixture such as cell lysate. Besides testing the presence of protein in a sample, Immunoprecipitation also helps extract the target protein from the mixture. A flow cytometry experiment is carried out to detect the presence of protein inside or on the surface of a whole cell. In in Vivo processes, either for therapeutic or research, antibodies impact the cellular processes.
Antibodies are also used to test the presence of antigens in a given sample. Using the ELISA test, colored dyes indicate any presence of antigens in antibodies.
5. Use of Antibodies in Medicine
Antibodies are used directly or indirectly to treat diseases, as preventive medicines, and for diagnosis. They are used to create vaccines to prevent any future infections. Additionally, specific monoclonal antibodies can be generated outside the body for therapies against illnesses or diseases.
Antibodies are essential in fighting infections and unwanted microorganisms. There is much to learn about custom antibodies as researchers are still discovering more facts. Using custom antibodies in research helps discover more uses and features of antibodies. Scientists are also looking for better and more convenient methods to produce and purify custom antibodies. When creating custom antibodies, you should use the right lab animal to give you maximum antibodies of interest. You should also apply the best purification method that will help you get quality antibodies.